In any confidentiality provision, it is important to specify how long each type of information and material remains confidential in accordance with the agreement, the provision of written information and documents when they are no longer needed, and the ownership of inventions that are made when the recipient uses the materials and information authorized internally. A common complaint of biotechnology licensees is the stacking of royalties, i.e. the need to pay royalties to several parties for the marketing of a single product. For example, a pharmaceutical laboratory that examines a combination chemical library to detect compounds that bind to and blocks a particular neural receptor could be indebted to the various patent owners who write the library, the generalized screening test, the isolated receptor, a cDNA coding receptor and a sequence mark derived from DNAC (EST) if the patent claim is written in “understood” language). Stanford University has succeeded with its Cohen/Boyer Patent Licensing Program, not least because Stanford University was the first to have a large biotechnographic patent. Subsequently, biotechnology companies increasingly understood that they would not pay multiple royalties for a single product. The long history of granting agricultural intellectual property (IP) licenses began with veterinary vaccines. Cornell patented and licensed these animal vaccines in the early 1930s, after establishing its patent and licensing subsidiary Cornell Research Foundation (CRF). Years ago, Cornell had an informal technology transfer process that allowed him to deliver new varieties of plants to New York farmers. Through this informal procedure, Cornell transferred new seed varieties to the commercial (farmers) sector through the New York Seed Improvement Program (NYSIP), a function of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station within Cornell`s College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Although NYSIP was not in itself a licensing procedure, NYSIP provided Cornell farmers with seeds developed in a long-standing tradition, in which farmers paid A small fee to NYSIP in exchange for seeds. And according to a practice that now characterizes Cornell`s IP technology transfer, NYSIP has transferred these seeds from the university to the private sector. There is often pressure for philanthropic or humanitarian provisions to be established in agro-biotechnical licences, particularly when crops are essential staple foods (e.g.
Rice or wheat) in developing countries. These provisions aim to establish clear boundaries between trade and uses that directly affect a country`s poor population. While there are many ways to define these limits, they are often based on the volume of production and the volume of commercial activity. These definitions depend on the harvest, the country and the particular socio-economic situation. For example, the cultivation of three lawyers would most likely be defined as philanthropic use in Bangladesh. Growing 25 trees may or may not be philanthropic; a 500-hectare plantation would certainly be considered commercial.